Famous Scientists, Medical and Inventors Graves
Orville Wright. Inventor. The younger of the two brothers who would invent the airplane and start the aerial age, he outlived his brother Wilbur by 36 years. After the successful four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, they returned to Dayton and continued their experiments at Huffman Prairie. They were awarded a patent in 1906 and started trying to attract potential customers with demonstration flights in Europe and elsewhere. With orders in hand including a contract to build planes for the United States Army, Wilbur and Orville started the Wright Company and began filling orders, but upon the early death of Wilbur, Orville, discouraged, sold the business in 1912 and retired. The two had been very close, lived at home and never married.
Wilbur Wright. Inventor, Aviation Pioneer. He was the older of the Wright Brothers, the siblings who are credited with inventing the first practical airplane and starting the aerial age. Along with his brother Orville, the pair started a printing business in their hometown of Dayton, Ohio which soon expanded to a bicycle shop.
Thomas Alva Edison Inventor. He was born in Milan, Ohio. His total formal school education was three months. His mother, a former school teacher, undertook his education. At the age of twelve, because he exhibited adult maturity, he convinced his parents to allow him to leave home and work as a newsboy aboard a train to Detroit. He published a weekly paper and sold it to passengers. Learning to operate a telegraph he gained employment. After a few years as a wandering operator, Edison settled in New York. Always, during employment, in his spare time, he worked on his inventions and experiments. Thomas Edison received $40,000 on ideas for improving the telegraph and telephone. He ventured out on his own, building a large work shop at West Orange, New Jersey. Here the invention of the phonograph was achieved. The electric light followed. Edison made over a thousand inventions from this laboratory. Some others were the moving-picture machine, the storage battery, the mimeograph, machines to help the iron and steel business. His inventions made possible our electric trains and streetcars. During the First World War, Edison was seventy. The government asked him to serve. He built a factory in eighteen days. Here he made many things which helped the army and navy. In his 80’s, his health began to fail. He obtained his last (1,093rd) patent at age 83. In August 1931, Thomas Edison collapsed at Glenmont (His residence located on a 15 acre estate). From that point, he steadily declined in health and was housebound until 3:21AM on Oct 18th, when the inventor died. A death mask was made. His body was placed in the Laboratory building on Lakeside, Avenue in West Orange and thousands of mourners paraded past. The evening of the day he was buried, countless individuals, communities and corporations throughout the world dimmed their lights, or briefly shut down their power in tribute. With Mrs Herbert Hoover, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone in attendance, he was buried at Rosedale Cemetery, Orange, New Jersey, with Mina, his second wife buried beside him upon her death. In 1963, the remains of both were exhumed from Rosedale Cemetery and reinterred at Edison’s Glenmont estate. Edison’s New Jersey Research Laboratory and Glenmont are today preserved as part of the Edison National Historical site.
Willis Haviland Carrier. Businessman, Inventor. Born in Angola, New York, he was engineer, most noted for inventing modern air conditioning. Educated at Cornell University, he started working at the Buffalo Forge Company in 1901. In 1902, he designed the first system to control temperature and humidity. His “Rational Psychrometric Formulae” introduced in 1911, initiated scientific air-conditioning design for home and industrial use. In 1915, he co-founded the Carrier Engineering Company, which became the world’s largest manufacturer of air-conditioning equipment. Carrier was purchased by United Technologies Corporation in 1979. He died at age 73 in New York City and was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1985. He also was named one of TIME magazine’s “100 Most Influential People of the 20th Century”, in 1998.
Christopher Latham Sholes. Sholes is credited as the U.S. inventor who developed the typewriter. The inscription on his tomb stone reads: “The Father of the Typewriter. Dedicated by The Young Men and Women of America In Grateful Memory of one who Materially aided in The World’s Progress.” He was granted a patent for the typewriter on June 23, 1868. Later improvements gained him two more patents, but due to difficulty in raising money for development, he sold his patent rights. In 1873, he sold the rights for $12,000 to the Remington Arms Company, a firm well equipped with machinery and skill to carry out the development work that resulted in the machine being marketed as the Remington Typewriter.The Sholes keyboard is called the QWERTY keyboard because of the ordering of the first six keys in the third row. This arrangement, the Sholes QWERTY keyboard is still used today.
Benjamin Franklin. Declaration of Independence Signer, Continental Congressman, US Diplomat, Printer and Inventor. Published the “Pennsylvania Gazette” and “Poor Richard’s Almanac”. Famous for his confirming lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a thunderstorm. Invented bifocals, Franklin Stove and other inventions. Served as a Delegate from PA to the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1776. Signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Served as U.S. Minister to France during the Revolutionary War. Instrumental in encouraging France to side with the U.S. One of the main negotiators of the peace treaty with Britain. Signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783. His son William Franklin was the last Royalist Governor of New Jersey, remained loyal to England and died in London. Uncle of Revolutionary War New Jersey Militia Major General and US Senator Franklin Davenport. 23 U.S. States have counties named after him. Image is on the current U.S. $100 dollar bill. One of the most famous and well known 18th Century thinkers, Renaissance men and Revolutionary Patriots.
Philo Taylor Farnsworth. Inventor. He is best remembered for his contributions to television, radar, and the nuclear industry. Born in Beaver, Utah, he became interested in science and technology at age 12, when his father moved the family to Rigby, Idaho, where the family worked a farm. Young Philo’s interest in electronics started with a long distance telephone call to a relative, and was further peaked by the discovery of a large box of technology magazines in the attic of the family’s new home. In 1922, at the age of 16, he developed the idea of the image dissector, which he would later state came to him in an inspiration while plowing a potato field, row by row. He realized that an electron beam could scan an image in much the same way, line by line, just as people read a book. He patented the idea of the Cathode Ray Tube just six years later. He was further inspired by his high school chemistry teacher, Justin Tolman, who gave him extra instruction. At age 16, he was accepted to Brigham Young University, but was forced to leave after his sophomore year, when his father died suddenly. After a brief stint in the US Navy, Philo returned to Idaho to support his mother. In 1926, he formed a partnership with George Everson, moving to San Francisco to set up a lab, where he worked on his television. On September 7, 1927, he demonstrated the principle of television by sending an image from one room to another, proving that television was possible. By 1936, Farnsworth’s company was transmitting regular entertainment programs, and shortly after, he signed a deal to form standard television programs for Great Britain. After inventing a camera tube he called the Iconoscope and setting up his own television manufacturing company, Farnsworth was sued by the RCA Corporation over royalties, contending that RCA inventor Vladimir Zworykin had invented the tube in 1926. Farnsworth’s high school teacher, Justin Tolman, proved the case by showing the court a drawing Philo had made at age 16 while in high school; the drawing was an almost exact replica of the Image Dissector. RCA paid Farnsworth royalties for only two years. During World War II, the US Government suspended sales of television sets, and Philo’s patents expired at the end of the war. After the war, RCA quickly took over the television market, without having to pay Philo any additional royalties. In 1947, he suffered a nervous breakdown, made worse by excessive drinking. Philo Farnsworth went on to invent over 165 different devices including equipment for converting an optical image into an electrical signal, amplifier, cathode-ray, vacuum tubes, electrical scanners, electron multipliers and photoelectric materials. Following the war, Philo worked on a fusor, an apparatus designed to create nuclear fusion, which he hoped would make electricity virtually cost free. When introduced into the nuclear research world in the late 1960s, many hoped the fusor would lead to a practical neutron source, and it has been commercially produced for this role. He died in Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1971. Farnsworth has been honored several times: a plaque honoring him as “the Genius of Green Street” is at 202 Green Street, the site of his San Francisco laboratory, and a statue of Farnsworth represents the state of Utah in the hall of fame in the US Capitol building. In December 2005, the Boy Scouts of America posthumously honored him with his Eagle Scout Badge, which he had not received during his childhood, caused by the family move to Idaho.
Charles Francis Jenkins. Inventor, Television Pioneer. Born in Dayton, Ohio, he as a stenographer for the Federal Government in Washington, D.C. when he succeeded in developing a machine that could project small moving pictures on a wall or screen in 1892. He developed the phantascope, entered into an agreement with the Columbia Phonograph Company to manufacture it and was the first president of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers in 1916. On July 2, 1928, Jenkins formed the first television station in the United States and began broadcasting this same day. That same year he formed the Jenkins Television Corporation in New Jersey to manufacture a Radiovisorsto to market and form television stations across the United States. In 1932, De Forest Radio purchased the Jenkins Television Corporation and he continued to seek ways to improve the Radiovisor until his death. Over the course of his life he received more than four hundred patents, many of these patents were in the fields of motion pictures and television.
Eli Whitney, II. Inventor of the cotton gin. The invention was able to clean a thousand pounds a day. It had taken a slave all day to clean one pound by hand. The device was not only an economic bonanza for the South but also the North which had the mills for making cotton into cloth. Whitney with a partner opened a factory in Hamden, Connecticut, an endeavor to manufacture the gin in an attempt to cash in on the device. The company was soon in jeopardy with production problems and then the building was destroyed including their stock of gins. However, within seven months they were again in business but more problems plagued the operation causing them to get out of the gin business and start making muskets for the U.S. government. Whitney had perfected a way to manufacture them by machine so that the parts were interchangeable. A deal was struck to supply the government with 10,000 musket kits. He not only became wealthy but the country’s foremost arms supplier. The growth of slavery increased. Cotton became so profitable it greatly increased the demand for slave labor. Today at Mulberry Grove, Port Wentworth, Ga., the foundation still stands on which the first cotton gin was erected. A State Historical Marker has been erected at the nearby city hall in Port Wentworth proudly proclaiming the area as the birthplace of the gin. However most of the legacy is located at Hamden, Connecticut. The New Haven Historical Society has preserved what is left of the Whitney factory complex which was located on the Mill River using it as the power for running machinery. Whitney constructed a low dam and waterwheels that made possible the Whitney Armory and its adjacent small settlement of Whitneyville where the employees lived.
James Robert Messenger. Father of the Information Age, writer, filmmaker. Conceived “The Theory of the Information Age” on December 12, 1982, while working for the American Telephone & Telegraph Company. Per the theory, the world’s telecommunications networks were rebuilt from analog into digital systems to accommodate the interconnection of computers via telecommunications. His film “The Taj Mahal” was winner of two Emmys, and he was nominated for Academy Awards for “OF TIME, TOMBS, AND TREASURES: The Treasures of Tutankhamen,” and “Koryo Celadon.” Other film and video productions include “Defining the Information Age,” “Carry the Fire – The Story of the 1984 Olympic Torch Relay,” and “KOREA: Reflections on the Morning Calm.” As author: The Death of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company – How “Ma Bell” Died Giving Birth to the Information Age, The Book of Love – The Guidebook for Anyone Who Ever Wanted to Be in Love, If I Won the Nobel Prize, CATHARSIS – America at the Turn of the 21st Century, and other works, and he was the editor of Educating Children for Leadership – Napoleon Bonaparte’s Long Lost System of Education for His Son. As playwright and screenwriter: “River of January,” “A Voice from St. Helena – Napoleon in Exile,” “Do I Love You? – The New Cole Porter Musical,” “All You Need Is Love – A Beatles Rock Opera,” “The End,” “My Airships,” “SHE,” and other works.
Famous Weather Scientist
Albert James Myer. Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General. He attended Buffalo Medical College, graduated in 1851 and from 1854 to 1869, he served as Assistant Surgeon in the US Army. In 1858, while serving in the West, he was inspired by the signaling system of the Native Americans and developed the “wig-wag” military signaling system adopted for use by the government. At the advent of the Civil War as a Major, he became the army’s first signal officer, when he received orders from Washington to organize and command the Signal Corps in June 1861. He served as chief signal officer to General George B. McClellan, participating in all of the battles from Bull Run to Antietam. He then returned to Washington, where he took charge of the United States signal office on March 3, 1863, with the rank of Colonel. For his service and innovations to the Signal Corps, he was brevetted Brigadier General U.S. Army, on March 13, 1865. In July 1866, Congress reorganized him as the Signal Corps chief signal officer, a position he held until his death. Hobart College awarded him an honorary Ph.D. degree in 1872 and Union College conferred an honorary Ph.D. on him in 1875. Through the US Army Signal Corps and Meteorology he has also recognized as the “founder and father” of the US Weather Bureau and was U.S. Delegate to the International Conferences of Vienna, Austria, 1873 and Rome, Italy, 1879.
Cleveland Abbe. Scientist. A native of New York City, New York, he studied and taught mathematics and astronomy at the Free Academy in New York, the University of Michigan, Cambridge Massachusetts, and at Pulkova, Russia. In 1868 he was named director of the Cincinnati Observatory in Ohio. While there he developed a system of telegraphic weather reports, daily weather maps and weather forecasts. At his urging Cincinnati became the meteorological observation headquarters for the United States. His project was so successful that in 1870, the United States Congress established what is now known as the National Weather Service. He was chosen as the chief meteorologist of the new bureau. “Old Probabilities” as he was nicknamed, developed a system that led to higher efficiency in weather forecasting. Under his leadership international cooperation between nations was soon developed to help provide more accurate data in regards to the weather.
Dr Daniel Draper. Director of the Meteorological Observatory in Central Park, New York City 1869-1911; Inventor of Draper’s Self Recording Weather Instruments. husband of Nancy Maury Ludlow
Wiley Post. Pioneer Aviator. He received international acclaim as an aviator with a colorful personality and while using auto-pilot, made the first solo flight around the world from July 15 to July 22, 1933. He began his career in the early 1920s as a barnstormer pilot, often performing as a parachute jumper. Born the son of a cotton farmer, his family moved from Texas to Oklahoma when he was five. He had a sixth grade education and attended the Sweeney Automobile and Aviation School in Kansas City, Kansas for seven months. During World War I, he wanted to become a pilot in the United States Air Service, but the war ended before he finished his training. He sought employment in the Oklahoma oilfields, but work was not regular, thus he resorted to stealing, arrested for arm robbery in 1921, and served over a year in the Oklahoma State Reformatory. On October 1, 1926, he lost an eye in an oilfield accident. He used the insurance settlement money to purchase his first aircraft, learning to fly in spite of his handicap, and was often seen with his distinctive eye patch. He gained fame as an aerial racer in the early 1930s, winning the Bendix Trophy while flying in his signature airplane “Winnie Mae”. The aircraft is on display at the National Air and Space Museum at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC.He twice completed a single plane round-the-world flight: In 1931, he did it in 8 days, 16 hours, then in 1933 he bettered his mark by doing it solo in 7 days, 19 hours. He pioneered a number of aviation inventions, including the automatic pilot, the high-altitude pressure suit and given credit for discovering the jet stream. Friends with humorist Will Rogers, they were both killed in a crash that Wiley Post was piloting over Alaska on August 15, 1935. In 1979 the United States Postal Service honored him on a US Airmail Stamp. Besides his grave site at Memorial Park, a memorial for him and Will Rogers stands today in Nehalem, Alaska, near where their plane crashed.
John Deere. Inventor, Industrialist. He is best known for founding the yard, farm and earthmoving equipment company that bears his name. John Deere was born in Rutland, Vermont, on February 7, 1804, the third son of William Rinold Deere, a merchant tailor. In 1808, William sailed for England, in hopes of claiming an inheritance, but he was never heard from again, and is presumed lost at sea. Raised by his widowed mother on a meager income, John’s education was limited to the primary schools of Vermont. He apprenticed himself to a blacksmith, and entered the trade in 1825. On January 28, 1827, he married Demarius Lamb. By 1836 the couple had four children, Demarius was pregnant with the fifth, and John was faced with bankruptcy. Deere sold his blacksmith shop to his father-in-law, left the proceeds of the sale with Demarius, and headed for Illinois frontier. He continued on to the newly settled village of Grand Detour, Illinois, on the edge of the frontier. There were no blacksmiths for forty miles, so Deere had work at once. On the Illinois frontier, the sticky, heavy prairie soil was proving difficult to work. Cast iron plows which worked fine in the light, sandy soils of the Northeast were ineffective. Plowing to break up the tough prairie sod was slow, hard work requiring the constant use of paddles to scrape the sticky soil off. Farmers came to Deere hoping that he could help them. John Deere was convinced that a steel plow that was highly polished and had a properly shaped moldboard could scour itself as it cut furrows. The first steel plow, made from a broken steel saw blade, was originated by John Lane of Joliet Illinois in 1833. In 1837, Deere added further improvements to Lane’s idea when he fashioned his first moldboard plow, also made from broken steel saw blade. It was an immediate success. Deere’s first plows used the saw blade steel for the share and smoothly ground wrought iron for the moldboard. Deere’s first plow, finished in 1837, worked better than any previous plow. In 1838 he built two more plows, one of which was sold to Joseph Brieton, who farmed just south of Grand Detour. That very implement was later discovered and purchased by Charles Deere and is on display at the Smithsonian Institution. By 1841, Deere was producing 100 of his plows annually. In 1843, he entered a partnership with Leonard Andrus to produce more plows to meet increasing demand. By 1848, Deere dissolved his partnership with Andrus and moved the business to Moline, which offered advantages of water power, coal and rail transportation. In 1850, approximately 1600 plows were made, and the John Deere Company was soon producing other tools to complement its steel plow. In 1858, Deere transferred leadership of the company to his son, Charles, who served as its vice president. John Deere retained the title of president of the company, but now turned his attention to civic and political activities. John Deere was active in public life throughout his career in Moline. Among other roles, he was the second president of the National Bank of Moline, served as a director of the Moline Free Public Library, was an active member of the First Congregational Church and served as the city’s mayor for two years. John Deere died on May 17, 1886, at his home in Moline. Today Deere and Co. is a leading maker of yard, farm and earthmoving equipment, with a market capitalization of nearly $17 billion on the New York Stock Exchange.
George Washington Carver. Scientist, Inventor. He developed three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more for soybeans, pecans, and sweet potatoes. Born a slave in 1864 on his father’s farm near Diamond Grove, Missouri, as an infant he and his mother were kidnapped by Confederate night-raiders and possibly taken to Arkansas. His father, Moses Carver found and reclaimed his son, but his mother was never found. It was on his father’s farm where Carver first fell in love with nature, where he earned the nickname “The Plant Doctor” and collected in earnest all manner of rocks and plants. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1894 and a Master of Science degree in bacterial botany and agriculture in 1897 from Iowa Agricultural College (now Iowa State University). He later became the first African-American member of the faculty of Iowa Agricultural College, teaching classes about soil conservation and etc. In 1897, Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee University in Alabama, convinced George Washington Carver to come south and serve as the school’s Director of Agriculture where he remained until his death in 1943. Only three patents were ever issued to him during his lifetime, but among his numerous listed discoveries are: adhesives, axel grease, bleach, buttermilk, chili sauce, fuel briquettes, instant coffee, linoleum, meat tenderizer, metal polish, paper, plastic, pavement, shaving cream, shoe polish, synthetic rubber, talcum powder and wood stain. Countless products we enjoy today come to us by way of Carver. He did not patent or profit from most of his products, he freely gave his discoveries to mankind. In 1940, he donated his life savings to the establishment of the Carver Research Foundation at Tuskegee, for continuing research in agriculture. George Washington Carver was bestowed several honors in his lifetime for his works which included being named a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in London in 1916, a honorary doctorate from Simpson College in 1928, the Spingarn Medal in 1923 by the NAACP, and the Theodore Roosevelt Medal for restoring southern agriculture. On July 14, 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt honored him with a national monument dedicated to his accomplishments. In 1951, the George Washington Carver National Monument was established on 210 acres of the Missouri farm where carver was born. There is also the George Washington Carver Museum on the campus of Tuskegee University in Alabama where he is buried.
Howard Robard Hughes, Sr. Inventor. The father of Howard Hughes Jr., he invented the 64 tooth drill bit used to cut through hard rock while drilling for oil, it is still used today. The wealth he accumulated went to his son.
Charles Goodyear. Inventor. He invented the vulcanization process that made rubber the practical waterproof material we know today. He devoted his life to bringing the benefits of rubber to humankind. In response, humankind either dismissed him as a crackpot, or actively sought to steal his inventions and to destroy him. He died bankrupt, after decades of poor health brought on by persistent poverty. He had nothing to do with the Goodyear Tire & Rubber, which wasn’t organized until 40 years after his death. He was born Charles Goodyear in New Haven, Connecticut on December 29, 1800. He had little schooling, and once he was past childhood, worked in his father’s hardware business. That business failed in 1830, which was when Goodyear began experimenting with a substance called rubber. The raw rubber of this period was a gummy sap from trees in Brazil. It interested many people because of its natural property of being waterproof and its ability to be stretched and formed. But it was also not very practical at extremes of temperature. It became brittle when cold and melted when warm, which frustrated early attempts by various entrepreneurs to use rubber in the manufacture of their products. Goodyear’s idea was that if he could make the product more stable, it could become a useful material. He experimented with putting different additives into rubber, but no matter what he added, the product was too gummy and would not keep its shape in hot weather, and it would not maintain its elasticity in cold temperatures. By 1836 Goodyear developed a nitric acid treatment which partially remedied these defects. At last he stumbled across the beneficial effects of adding sulfur to the rubber and then heating it, which he developed into the famous vulcanizing process, and first patented it in 1844. Goodyear’s discovery was to revolutionize the rubber industry, but he was unable to personally profit from it. His patent rights were continually infringed upon, and when he died in 1860, he was $200,000 in debt.
John Colgan. Inventor. Druggist at Tenth and Walnut Streets, was the first to manufacture chewing gum by adding chicle, a new chewing substance, to the extract of balsam tolu, which he used in making cough syrup. With his son, William, marketing Colgan’s Taffy Tolu, the Cogan Chewing Gum Company prospered and sold out in 1911.
Dr Charles Courtice Alderton. Inventor. He was the creator of the “Dr. Pepper” soft drink. Born in Brooklyn, New York to British immigrants, he went to England after his early education, where he attended a college in Stowmarket. He returned to Brooklyn during the Westward Expansion, and attended medical school at the University of Texas in Galveston, Texas. Graduating with an M.D., he decided to work as a pharmacist, moving to Waco, Texas to join W. B. Morrison in his Old Corner Drug Store. He soon noticed that patrons of the soda fountain soon were tired of the standard fountain flavors. He confirmed this by his own taste experiments which led him to concoct a series of mixtures to find a more original drink. After exhaustive testing of combinations of fruit extracts from the fountain, he finally discovered one that was particularly pleasing. Carefully measuring the different syrups and fine tuning the product as he went, he invited Morrison to try his new drink, which Morrison loved. When the product as offered to their fountain patrons as a test, the reaction was overwhelming. Charles Alderton’s drink caught on fast and soon customers were asking for “Doc Alderton’s drink.” Morrison came up with the name for it, naming it “Dr. Pepper”, after the father of a girl he had once courted. After 100 years the soda is still much the same product Charles Alderton created, and is one of the most popular sodas today.
Dr John Stith Pemberton. American physician and chemist from Georgia who invented the popular soft drink Coca~Cola. After attending pharmacy school, Dr. Pemberton opened up his own drug store in Columbus, Georgia. He later served as a confederate lieutenant in the Civil War. After moving to Atlanta, he begin selling his medicines. His best selling product was wine of coca which was sold as a cure for nervous disorders, disturbances of internal plumbing, and impotency. It was in 1885, in the backyard of his home on 107 Marietta St. in Atlanta, that Dr. Pemberton mixed up the syrup that would later become Coca~Cola. The name Coca~Cola came from Frank Robinson, a man he had met. He then sold the drink as a brain tonic for five cents, but it was poorly received. In 1888, sold the formula to Asa Candler for $1,750. Dr. Pemberton died in Atlanta in 1888. It was under Candler that the Coca~Cola Company was founded in 1892 and has never looked back. It was in 1894 when Coca~Cola was put in bottles and sold all over the world for the first time. None of the company’s strides in marketing, international expansion, product innovation, or profit growth could have happened had it not been for Coca~Cola inventor Dr. John S. Pemberton.
Carl Edward Sagan. Scientist. He was an American astronomer and science writer who used his talents not only for scientific research and government space projects but also in mass media. He obtained his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1960 and taught at the University of California, Berkeley and Harvard university and also worked at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962 to 1968). He is perhaps best known for his work (as co-producer and narrator) in his television series “Cosmos” (1980). Major publications included “Atmospheres of Mars and Venus” (1961); “Planetary Exploration” (1970); “The Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective” (1973); “Broca’s Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science” (1979); the novel “Contact” (1985); “Nuclear Winter” (1985); and “The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark” (1996).
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper. Invented COBOL. Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. She was a mathematician and a pioneer in data processing and computer science. U.S. Naval officer reaching the rank of Rear Admiral. Oldest naval officer on active duty retiring at age 79. Also known as “Amazing Grace” and “The Mother of COBOL”, she was a Computer Scientist and US Navy Officer. The Guided Missile Destroyer USS Hopper is named in her honor. It was only the second US Warship to be named in honor of a woman from the Navy’s own ranks. In 1947, she was working on a Mark II computer at Harvard University when a moth was discovered in a relay, impeding the computers operation. She is widely credited with coining the term “debugging” because of that event. She received a Bachelors Degree in mathematics and physics from Vassar University, where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa. She received a Masters Degree in mathematics and physics from Yale University. She pioneered the implementation of computer coding standards for testing computer systems and components. She retired from the US Navy in 1986 aboard the USS Constitution and at that time was the oldest officer in the US Navy and held the rank of Rear Admiral, Lower Half, formerly known as Commodore. Symbolically, the USS Constitution is the oldest ship in the US Navy. She was the recipient of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the highest non-combat related award and the highest joint services decoration.
Famous Astronaut Graves
John Glenn. Astronaut, US Senator. Born John Herschel Glenn, Jr., he was the first American to orbit the Earth and went on to serve in the United States Senate from 1975 to 1999. He was a veteran of both World War II and the Korean War, serving as a fighter pilot in both the Navy and Marine Corps. After the Korean War ended, he became a test pilot and when the newly formed NASA began recruiting astronauts in 1958, he applied and was selected as one of the original Mercury Seven. On February 20, 1962, he became the third American in space and the first to orbit the earth when he lifted off in Friendship 7. His observations of the the journey fascinated watchers at home, particularly his description of “little specks, brilliant specks, floating around outside the capsule”. He came back to Earth after five hours and was honored as a national hero, met President Kennedy at the White House, and was given a ticker-tape parade in New York City. He left NASA in 1964 and retired from the Marines a year later. He first entered the world of politics by running for the US Senate from Ohio in 1964, but had to withdraw from the race early due to a concussion sustained during a fall. He ran again ten years later in 1974 for the Senate and defeated Republican Ralph Perk to become a United States Senator. He served in the Senate for four terms until retiring in 1999. During his tenure in the Senate, he was the chief author of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 and also sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984. Before retiring from the Senate, he went up in space for a second time, this time on the Space Shuttle Discovery, in 1998. In his later years he founded the John Glenn Institute of Public Service and Public Policy at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. He also taught at the school as an adjunct professor. Among his many honors were the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, and six Distinguished Flying Crosses.
Christa Corrigan McAuliffe. Astronaut, Educator. She was a teacher, and was slated to be the first civilian in space, assigned to fly about the ill-fated space shuttle “USS Challenger”. The image of her jaunty stride and exuberant wave as she entered Challenger spacecraft shortly before the ill-fated mission ended in tragedy has become an icon of the 20th century. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan, in an attempt to rekindle the excitement of the early days of America’s space adventures, directed that the first ordinary Unites States citizen in space would be “one of America’s finest, a teacher.” The energetic Social Studies teacher from Concord High School, Concord, New Hampshire, noted on her eleven-page application, “I watched the Space Age being born and I would like to participate.” In July 1985, Christa was selected over 11,500 other applicants to become the first Teacher In Space. As a payload specialist on the Challenger mission, she trained side by side with the other six Challenger astronauts. She prepared materials for the two lessons scheduled during the flight and planned to keep a journal, reminiscent of the journals kept by pioneer women crossing the 1800s frontier. Instead, millions of school children and adults watched horrified as the Challenger exploded only 73 seconds after lift-off. Christa’s influence continues to touch the lives of school children and adults alike. The Christa McAuliffe Planetarium, opened in 1990 in Concord, New Hampshire, carries on her vision of educating students of all ages about astronomy and space science: “I touch the future, I teach.”
Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. American Astronaut. The first American into space, he is currently the oldest man to have walked on the moon. n April 1959, he was one of the first pilots to be selected by NASA for Project Mercury, and was the first American sent into space on May 5, 1961 on the Freedom 7 spacecraft. Apollo 14, and at age 47, made the third trip to the moon, and becoming the oldest man to step foot on the moon, as well as setting the current (as of 2006) record for the longest stay on the moon (33 hours). Shepard is also remembered for sneaking a golf club and several balls to the moon, becoming the first to play golf there; although he hooked his first shot, his second hit went for several miles in the moon’s lesser gravity. In 1988, Shepard and astronaut Deke Slayton wrote “Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America’s Race to the Moon” about their careers. In 1996, Shepard was diagnosed with leukemia, and died near his home in Pebble Beach, California at the age of 74. His wife, Louise Brewer Shepard, died five weeks afterwards. Their ashes were scattered from a helicopter hovering over Stillwater Cove near their home in Pebble Beach, Califonria. There is a cenotaph for the couple at Forest Hill Cemetery in East Derry, New Hampshire.
Ellison Shoji Onizuka. Astronaut. Born in Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii, he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the US Air Force and served as a NASA Mission Specialist Astronaut. At Kennedy Space Center, Florida, January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after the launch taking the life of Onizuka and six other crew members.
Jack Swigert, Jr. Astronaut, US Congressman. Born John Leonard Swigert in Denver, Colorado, he served with the US Air Force as a fighter pilot 1953 to 1956 and with the Air National Guard 1957 to 1965. He held a position as engineering test pilot for North American Aviation, Inc. before joining NASA as an Astronaut in April 1966. He served as a member of the astronaut support crew for the Apollo 7 mission and was assigned command module pilot as a late replacement ten days before the Apollo 13 moon mission on April 11, 1970. Approximately 55 hours into the mission the flight plan was modified en-route to the moon due to a failure of the Apollo 13 service module cryogenic oxygen system. Together with fellow crewmen, James A. Lovell and Fred W. Haise, they worked closely with Houston ground controllers, converted their lunar module “Aquarius” into a effective lifeboat. Thus a possible space disaster resulted into a successful failure which safely returned the crew to earth. Swigert took a leave of absence from NASA to become Executive Director of the Committee on Science and Technology in 1973. He resigned from NASA and the committee in August 1977. In November 1982, he was elected as a Republican to the US Congress but died of cancer before he could take his oath of office.
Francis X. Carey. American Astronaut. Born in Paterson, New Jersey, and enlisted in the United States Air Force where he began technical training at Denver, Colorado’s Lowry Air Force Base. He later transferred to Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Florida, for advanced training at the Titan Missile site which provided the foundation of future space programs. He became the chief test conductor on all Gemini flights, as well as Apollo, Viking and shuttle flights. He received special achievement awards for his contributions.
Henry Augustus Ward. Scientist. Born in Rochester, New York, he studied at the Middlebury Academy, and continued on to the Paris School of Mines. He collected countless geological specimens from Europe and Africa, specializing in an impressive collection of meteorites. He returned to Rochester in 1860, teaching at the University of Rochester, where he founded Ward’s Natural Science Establishment, the internationally known supplier of scientific educational materials. His memorial was designed by renowned architect and spiritualist Claude Bragdon and is topped by a huge jasper-flecked boulder which Ward discovered in Georgian Bay, Canada. He was struck and killed by an automobile while walking across a street. His death was one of the first deaths by automobile.
Hiram Bond Everest. Inventor. While an employee at the Vacuum Oil Company (later Mobil Oil) , he discovered that the thick oil which was a by-product of his distilled kerosene was able to stand the high pressures and temperatures of the new internal combustion engine. Previously the oil had been used only by tanners, but when George Selden tried it in his gasoline automobile engine in 1877 he found it to be the perfect lubricant and it was henceforth known as motor oil.
Dr Lewis Howard Latimer. Engineer, Inventor. Highly accomplished African-American pioneering engineer in the field of electricity. Dr. Lewis Howard Latimer worked closely with inventors Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison to help bring about the 20th century’s technological revolution. Born in 1848 in Chelsea, Massachusetts near Boston, Latimer was the son of fugitive slaves George and Rebecca Latimer. Latimer would later fight for freedom during the Civil War, concealing the fact that he was under age so he could serve on a Union gunboat. Afterward he returned to Boston and found work as an office boy for a firm of patent lawyers. From these humble beginnings, Latimer worked his way up and became a master draftsmen, engineer, and inventor. He married Mary Wilson who preceded him in death on September 20, 1873 and the couple had one daughter. Latimer’s first major contribution to science took place when he drew the patent plans for the telephone, making the production of Bell’s invention possible. Next, he revolutionized incandescent lighting-by discovering a way to make the filaments in Edison’s light bulb more durable-and supervised the installation of electric street lighting in New York City, Philadelphia, Montreal, and London. His keen understanding of the electric light and power industries eventually earned him an important position on Edison’s staff. Because achievements by African-Americans were seldom publicized in his day, Latimer never saw his name earn it’s proper place in history. Yet he refused to let “unnumbered wrongs” break his spirit. Ever determined to make something of his life, Latimer was, as he himself said, “unconquered and unconquerable.” Dr. Lewis Latimer died on December 11, 1928. Since his death his home in Flushing, New York, has been moved to a new location in Queens to serve as a museum.
Theodore Willard Case. Inventor. An important figure in the development of sound motion pictures. Case was born in Auburn, New York, into a socially prominent family. He began to experiment with photographing sound waves while a student at Yale, and in 1916 he set up the Case Research Laboratory in a greenhouse at his Auburn estate. During World War I he worked on classified projects involving infrared signals for the US Navy. Case was instrumental in helping Lee de Forest create the first workable sound-on-film system, Phonofilm (1923), and in 1926 he joined forces with Hollywood studio mogul William Fox to form the Fox-Case Corporation for the production of talkies. His improved audio process, Movietone, debuted in 1927 with the Fox Movietone newsreels and the feature “Sunrise”, which had a music and effects track. Although rival Warner Bros. achieved revolutionary success with its Vitaphone (sound-on-disc) system, the less-heralded Movietone proved more reliable and by 1929 it had been adapted by the entire motion picture industry. That year Case sold his business interests to Fox, though he remained associated with the studio until the Fox-Case subsidiary was dissolved in 1930. He spent the rest of his life in semi-retirement. In 1936 he donated his Auburn home to the county to serve as a museum; it is now the Cayuga Museum of History & Art. Case’s laboratory there has been preserved as he left it. He is the subject of a biography, “Now We’re Talking: The Story of Theodore W. Case and Sound-on-Film” by Antonia K. and Luke P. Colella (2003, 2nd Edition 2010).
John Roffo Oishei. Co-founder (with Dr. Peter C. Cornell & William P. Haines) of a corporation manufacturing windshield wipers (a “Rain Rubber”) using the invention of John W. Jepson. The corporate name became “Tri-Continental Corp” and ultimately became “Trico”.
Mary Anderson was a real-estate developer and inventor who moved to Birmingham in 1889. During a trip to New York in the winter of 1903, she noticed her cab driver struggle to keep the windshield clear. After her return to Birmingham, Mary designed the first windshield wiper. By the 1920s, windshield were standard equipment on new cars. Mary Anderson built and managed the Fairmont Apartments on Highland Avenue until her death in 1953.
Sylvan Nathan Goldman. His greatest contribution was the shopping cart, invented in 1936 and patented by Goldman. He established the Folding Basket Carrier Company to manufacture his invention. It was just the beginning of a list of creations that revolutionized the grocery industry: the grocery sacker, the folding interoffice basket carrier, and the handy milk bottle rack.
Worcester Reed Warner. Scientist. Manufacturer of Optical Instruments and Philanthropist. Close friend of next door neighbor John D. Rockefeller. In 1929 gave $300,000 to build the Warner Library in Tarrytown. Founded Warner & Swasey a machine tool and precision instrument company in Cleveland which also made astronomical telescopes for the government. He was president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a Fellow of the Royal Astronomers’ Society of Great Britain. The ASME annually awards the Worcester Reed Warner Medal, a gold medal, for outstanding contribution to the permanent literature of engineering.
Charles Israel Corby. Baking Innovator. Charles Israel Corby and his brother William contributed to the modernization of the baking industry, standardizing and mechanizing the bread-making process. In the period around 1900, large corporate bakeries were starting to dominate the baking business. The Corby Baking Company, founded in 1890 by William, started as one of the leading independent baking companies. In 1891 a partnership between the brothers was formed. The Corby company made modern baking history, perfecting several processes and machinery for handling the bread in the making. The brothers filed patents in 1899 and 1900 for machines that mixed and manipulated dough into loaves and other shapes; these machines were used by bakeries through the country. They pioneered the use of refrigeration for fermentation control, opened a laboratory for studying fermentation, and developed an energy-efficient oven that doubled baking output. Other innovations included perfecting a system for pasteurization, using milk in bread, and initiating a schedule of baking and delivery which they advertised as bringing hot bread to every neighborhood store in time for family meals. They moved into a new location in 1894, constructed a new building in 1902, and more additions in 1912 that filled most of the block, making it Washington’s largest bakery. They used only the most modern baking technology, including machines that could produce about 90,000 uniform loaves of bread and a half ton of cakes each day. The bakery became famous for its “Mother’s Bread,” which it advertised as being “pure as mother made it.” A master salesman, he created another ad, typical for the exaggerated claims of the time, stating “We believe it is true that Corby’s Mothers Bread has established the standard in bread; and we know it is equally true that we are bending every effort to maintain that standard—the BEST BREAD SCIENCE and SKILL CAN BAKE.” In the same vein, a 1904 advertisement for Mother’s Bread announced that in honor of George Washington’s birthday, a free hatchet would be given away with each loaf of bread, apparently in regard to the famous story of young George chopping down a cherry tree. By 1915, 165 people were on the payroll at Corby`s, including 60 bakers. The self-contained factory had its own power plant, well, and refrigerating plant, and even built, painted, and maintained its own bread delivery wagons. Continental Baking Company bought Corby Baking Company in 1925, and he retired from the business about this time, but continued to be part owner of the new company. Continental continued to operate under the Corby name in Washington, but replaced Corby’s “Mothers Bread” with its Wonder Bread. He built a mansion in Montgomery County, a 120-acre estate named Timberlawn, and died in the grandstands of the Nautilus polo field in Miami Beach, Florida in February 1926 from a heart ailment, a year after retiring from the baking business.
Robert Fulton. Inventor, Artist. While not the inventor of the steamboat, he was very instrumental in constructing a steamboat named the “Clermont”,and parlaying it into a commercial success with the first permanent commercial route in history on the Hudson River. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston backed the venture with his financial and political influence. He was born near the town, on a farm, today known as Quarryville, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The site today is a National Historic Landmark, while the stone house where Fulton was born, was destroyed by fire, has since been restored to its original appearance. It is operated by the Southern Lancaster Historical Society and houses many items from the inventors life. He was born to Robert, a farmer, and Mary Fulton into a family that would ultimately number five. Robert senior would soon die leaving his widow scantily provided with the small children. However, Mary Fulton prevailed, home schooling the family with Robert at age eight, enrolled in a local Quaker school. Fulton was an average student but excelled at drawing, painting and mechanics while growing up. Upon completing an apprenticeship to a Philadelphia jeweler while supporting himself as a painter of portraits and landscapes, he moved to England to study painting under Benjamin West but grew more interested in engineering and naval warfare. While living in France, Fulton built the submarine Nautilus, an experimental steam powered vessel. During his lifetime, he was involved in a wide variety of projects, including inventing various tools and working with the U.S. Navy on the development of the torpedo, actually blowing up a brig in New York Harbor as a demonstration. He also designed the world’s first steam-powered warship which was launched after his death. Finally, in partnership with Robert Livingston, he designed and constructed a steamboat, his ultimate venture, named “The North River Steamboat, later called the “Clermont.” The craft left New York City, proceeding up the Hudson River to Albany in only 32 hours At age 49, at the height of his fame and while working on various projects, a serous cold developed into pneumonia bringing about his death at his residence located in what is now Battery Place in lower Manhattan. His body lay in state there until a procession was formed conveying him to historic Trinity Church the site of his funeral. Thousands lined the route as minute-guns were fired from a steam-frigate anchored off shore in the Hudson River and the New York Battery. His service was attended by representatives from both the National and State governments as well as high officials of the City of New York. Interment followed with placement beside his wife (nee Harriet Livingston) in her family vault at Trinity Church Yard Cemetery. Aftermath and Legacy…The vault became weather beaten and Robert Fulton’s name was never added to the list of the persons occupying the chamber and his resting place became hardly known. On the top of the vault was a brownstone slab, the inscriptions were virtually obliterated. In 1901, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers sought to rectify this by placement of a cenotaph marker, a short distance from the burial vault, which is a column bearing on one side a bronze medallion portrait. However, the gesture did little to pin point his burial place as the marker only confuses visitors who assume this is the grave of the famous, talented, inventor and genius. Fulton has the monopoly in county names honoring him across America…location of some are in the States of Georgia, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania (Curiously, the Pennsylvania county of his birth honors another) and New York. A life size marble statue of Fulton created by Howard Roberts Palmer is located in Statuary Hall, United States Capitol. His honors in New York City are unique. Along his namesakes, Fulton Street, and located here is Fulton Park, nearly two thousand acres in size.
George Roby Dempster – Inventor. As a teenager this brilliant but restless young man searched the country seeking his niche. At the age of fourteen he “hoboed” on a train to Virginia where he lied about his age to get a job for a railroad company. At the age of sixteen he got a job on an ocean liner but was fired when it was discovered he was too young. When he was nineteen years old he and his brother went to Panama to get a job building the canal. He is credited with being the first person to use a steam shovel to remove the first dirt on the Pacific side of the new canal. In 1912 he returned to his hometown of Knoxville, Tennessee where he and his brothers began successful construction and machinery companies. However they both went bankrupt during the Great Depression. Undaunted he focused on ways to help modernize the construction business. He used his knowledge and experience to develop new designs in the construction arena and at the time of his death held seventy-five different patents. His most popular invention was in the area of waste disposal. In 1935 he invented the Dempster Dumpster. The large metal containers revolutionized the construction business with its design that helped companies store and transport waste in a more economical way. Soon his invention led to the establishment of the Dempster Brothers Manufacturing Company. The “Dempster Dumpster” became popular among military use and became famous worldwide. In 1964 the inventor received the U.S. Navy Public Service Award because of the usefulness of this invention. Today thousands of businesses all around the world have a “dumpster” thanks to his efforts.
Benjamin Banneker. Inventor, Scientist. He is arguably the best-known African-American figure in early United States history. Born near Baltimore, Maryland in 1731, his grandmother, an Englishwoman, taught him to read and write. It was while attending school that he developed an interest in mathematics and science. Later, while a farmer, Banneker pursued his mathematical studies and taught himself astronomy. Fascinated with time pieces, in 1753 at age 22, he carved a clock entirely out of wood by hand, with his only models being a pocket watch and an old picture of a clock (the clock he made kept almost perfect time for over 50 years). Going on to become a respected mathematician, he published the first “Maryland Almanac” for several years, in which he calculated all the scientific computations himself. In 1791, he was appointed an assistant to Major Andrew Ellicott by President George Washington to be on the surveying team that determined the boundaries for America’s capital, Washington, D.C., having been recommended by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson.
Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg. Scientist. The son of Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, who is considered the patriarch of the American Lutheran Church, he himself was an ordained Lutheran minister, and served as the pastor of the Holy Trinity Lutheran Church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania for thirty-five years. He became an expert in American botany after his retirement from the clergy, and published a number of seminal botanical works, his best known and influential being “Catalogus Plantarum Americae Septentrionalis” in 1813, and “Descriptio Uberior Graminum et Plantarum Calamariarum Americae Septentrionalis Indiginarum et Cicurum” in 1817.
Emile Berliner. Inventor. Born in Hanover, Germany, he is best known for developing the disc record. In the 1870s, he relocated to Washington D.C. and in November 1887, he patented the first successful system for sound recording that could be mass-produced. He also invented the microphone device used as a telephone speech transmitter. Berliner’s trademark, a picture of his dog Nipper listening to his master’s voice being played from a gramophone was used by RCA Victor.
Konrad Dannenberg. Rocket Scientist. Having helped Germany bomb London during World War II, he then was a major part of America’s project to land men on the moon. Raised in Hanover from the age of two, he developed an interest in rockets after hearing a lecture and seeing a test of a rocket-driven railroad car. He became part of a group of amateur scientists directed by Albert Pullenberg, then studied mechanical engineering at the University of Hanover with a major in diesel fuel injection. Drafted into the German Army in 1939 (a Nazi Party member, he became such in the same involuntary manner as did thousands of others), he was assigned to horse-artillery and participated in the early part of the Battle of France. Apparently not a very good horseman, Dannenberg was discharged from the army in 1940 thru Pullenberg’s influence then assigned to Peenemunde as a propulsion specialist. Becoming Walter Riedel’s deputy, he was present at the initial test of the V2 rocket on October 3, 1942, the first launch of a man-made object which achieved escape velocity and reached outer space. The V2 inflicted much damage on England during the final year of the war; when the scientists at Peenemunde realized that the German cause was lost they made a conscious decision to surrender to American troops rather than be captured by the Soviets; thus, the Russians found the facility empty, the men and rockets in American hands. Dannenberg was part of “Operation Paperclip”, the shipping of captured Nazi scientists to the United States. Initially the group was at Fort Bliss, Texas where Dannenberg used the captured V2s in propulsion research; transferred to Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama at the start of the Korean War, he was a developer of the Redstone missile and later worked on the Jupiter IRBM at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Detroit. In 1960 he moved to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville where, as deputy manager of the Saturn program, he helped develop the propulsion system for the Saturn V which carried the first men to the moon in 1969. Upon his 1973 retirement, Dannenberg received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, then later was professor at the University of Tennessee; in 1990 he was awarded the Durand Lectureship and in 1995 received the Herman Oberth Award. Throughout his later years he remained an advocate of continued American exploration of outer space.
Smiley Jordan Blanton. Psychiatrist, Author. He gained wide acclaim with his work with Rev. Norman Vincent Peale and authoring several psychiatric books. A Freud-trained psychiatrist, Dr. Blanton teamed with Peale to begin a religious-psychiatric clinic during the Great Depression in the Marble Collegiate Church in New York City. They were trying to respond to the deep-rooted psychiatry needs of the church’s congregation. In 1951, this clinic was organized into the American Foundation of Religion and Psychiatry, with Peale being president and Blanton as executive director. This clinic also trained clergy to be able to respond to their congregation’s psychiatric needs. Blanton and Peale co-wrote several books, with most notably being their first, “Faith Is the Answer: A Pastor and Psychiatrist Discuss Your Problems.” Today, the clinic is still open as Blanton and Peale Institute and Counseling Center, with advertisements reading, “providing affordable holistic mental health care in Midtown Manhattan” in New York City. As a strict Presbyterian from a Southern family, Blanton earned his M.D. from Cornell University in 1914. He had psychiatric training under Dr. Adolf Meyer, chief of psychiatric medicine at John Hopkins Hospital. After serving in the United States military during World War I, he studied from 1922 to 1923 neurology and psychiatric medicine receiving a degree from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in London, England. He then taught at the University of Minneapolis,established the first child guidance clinic in public health medicine, in 1927 started a nursery school at Vassar College in New York, and then began his private practice of psychoanalysis in New York City. Through colleagues encouragement, he sought Sigmund Freud for an analysis. Dr. Blanton was a patient of Freud from September 1, 1929 to May 30, 1930. He had several more weeks of analysis with Freud in August 1935, August 1937 and in London in August 1938. When Blanton met Freud in 1935 in Vienna, Austria, he was encountering Nazi army persecution of the Jews. Blanton urged Freud to leave the country before he was sent to a concentration camp and killed. Freud agree that his life was in danger, and inscribed a copy of “The Interpretation of Dreams” as a gift to Blanton. This may be the reason there was not a 1936 session as Freud was escaping to England. Blanton was allowed to take notes of his analytic sessions. These notes were used for his 1971 book, “Diary of My Analysis with Freud.” The analysis was conducted in English and Freud’s English was described as being perfect. Having an interest in children, he wrote his 1919 “Speech Training for Children: The Hygiene of Speech.”